La low placenta or previa It is an anomaly that occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy in which the placenta descends (lowers) totally or partially towards the lower portion of the uterus, where it implants and can obstruct the internal cervical opening of the cervix.
In this article we are going to discover why it occurs placenta previa, its different degrees of manifestation, what consequences it has for the mother and her baby, as well as the treatments indicated for this condition.
Table of Contents
What is a low placenta or previa?
In a normal pregnancy, the placenta is located attached to the upper or lateral part of the uterus. But in certain situations, the placenta can change position by descending towards the bottom of the uterus, covering the cervix and totally or partially obstructing it.
Why does it occur?
Placenta previa usually occurs between the second or third month of gestation and affects one in 200 pregnant women. It usually occurs in women who smoke, are elderly, have a history of cesarean sections or abortions, have uterine malformations or diseases (such as fibroids), multiple pregnancies, infections, or intake of drugs such as cocaine.
Types of placenta previa and symptoms
Placenta previa is diagnosed by means of a transvaginal or abdominal ultrasound, which is why it is vitally important to attend all the periodic check-ups scheduled by the specialist.
This affectation can manifest itself in different degrees:
- Whole placenta previa: when the placenta completely covers the cervix.
- Partial placenta previa: if it partially covers the cervix leaving a small unobstructed margin.
- Previous placenta marginal: if it reaches the internal cervical os but does not cover it.
- lateral or low placenta: if the placenta is inserted in a lower position reaching the lower uterine segment. This is the least serious of all.
One of the main symptoms of low placenta or previa is vaginal bleeding that stands out for being bright red. Normally this symptom is not accompanied by pain and occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Sometimes you can see some blood spots that appear before an event that triggers more blood loss.
The prognosis for placenta previa is good. if treated properly and the risk of death associated with this complication is very low, between 2% and 5%. In any case, it is best to lead healthy lifestyle habits that promote good fetal development and a healthy pregnancy.
On the other hand, bleeding can also be accompanied by premature contractions of the uterus that cause more severe pain. In addition, bleeding can appear in situations after sex or during a medical examination. On other occasions it appears until childbirth. In summary, it can be said that there is no specific event that causes said sacred.
To prevent possible complications, it is advisable to consult a doctor during the second or third trimester of pregnancy as long as the bleeding is intense during said period.
Consequences and treatment
Usually, placenta previa remits at 28 weeks gestation when the cervix dilates. However, this may not happen, so a series of treatments must be implemented to avoid some of its associated risks, such as poor positioning of the baby for delivery, growth and neurodevelopment problems, fetal bleeding, etc.
The clinical manifestation presented by pregnant women with placenta previa is painless bleeding, of variable abundance and at intermittent periodic intervals. So it is not a sign of menstruation and is a distinctive sign of the existence of placenta previa. In this case, it will be necessary to carry out a series of interventions to ensure the safety of the mother and baby.
In most cases, the recommendation for patients with placenta previa is absolute bed rest. Also stop smoking in the event that the mother has this habit and in some cases the interruption of sexual activity may be indicated.
With this information you will be able to learn more about the symptoms, characteristics and identification of the low placenta or previa and its possible treatments.
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