What does a gynecologist do?

Illustrative scheme of a gynecologist's consultation

A gynecologist is a doctor who specializes in the medical branch of the Gynecology. The word "gynecology" comes from the Greek, where Guinea is a woman and Logos, science or study. So literally Gynecology would be the science dedicated to the study of women.

Due to the increase in the life expectancy of women, the specialty in Gynecology has become one of the most demanded professions in recent decades. Therefore, in this post we will show you what does a gynecologist do And what are its main functions?

Pregnancy monitoring of a patient in consultation with a gynecologist and her nurse

Gynecologists are doctors who specialize in the study of the female reproductive system. They treat all kinds of conditions that have to do with the uterus, vagina, ovaries, and breasts throughout the three most important stages in a woman's life: prenatal, natal, and postnatal.

It is essential that women regularly go to their gynecological check-ups since the early detection of diseases helps to prevent or cure certain conditions that, otherwise, could even cause death.

Here we show you the most important functions carried out by gynecologists:

Early detection and prevention of diseases and infections

The main function of a gynecologist is not to cure, but to prevent. To do this, it will provide the patient with tools that allow her to take care of the appearance of certain diseases, infections or any type of affectation related to the female reproductive system and the breasts.

Public institutions recommend that women attend regular gynecological check-ups starting at age 18 or as soon as they start having sex. The reproductive health status of the patient will be evaluated and a follow-up will be carried out throughout her life until approximately 65 years of age.

Pregnancy monitoring and delivery assistance

Pregnancy monitoring is another of the main tasks carried out by a gynecologist. It is even recommended to go before conceiving, to verify that the woman enjoys the necessary state of health that the 9 months of pregnancy requires.

The gynecologist will assist and advise the patient on any doubt or problem related to your pregnancy, continuing follow-up in the weeks after delivery.

Orientation and sexual education

It is mandatory that women receive education about their sexuality it means. The gynecologist will provide information on contraceptive methods, ETS (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) and care to be taken in sexual practices.

Interruption of pregnancy

Gynecologists also carry out the practice of terminating pregnancy or abortion, either due to a health problem or by the will of the patient. At no time will he question the patient's decision, keeping her personal opinions on the sidelines.

Below we show you the most frequent tests performed in gynecological check-ups:

Pap smear or Papanicolaou (Pap) test

Performing vaginal cytology by inserting a speculum into the woman's vagina


It is the most common test to study the state of the female reproductive system. Devised by the Greek physician Georgios Papanicolaou, the test consists of taking a sample of epithelial cells located in the transition zone of the cervix to later analyze them and thus determine the hormonal status of the patient. In addition, it allows the early detection and diagnosis of cancer cervical.


It is the main technique for Early detection of breast cancer. It uses X-rays to internally examine the breast tissue and detect the existence of any abnormalities, if any. In this way, the cure rate is increased and the treatments used are less aggressive.

Gynecological ultrasound

Using ultrasound technology, this test allows internal images of the female genital organs to be taken and is the best way to detect cysts or polyps that could lead to cancer.

Bone densitometry or DEXA

It is a type of x-ray that -as its name indicates- is used to measure bone density, that is, its level of calcium and mineralization. It is used to detect the possible existence of osteoporosis and is applied mainly in women who are going through the menopause.

This is so because the decrease in female hormones experienced by women outside of reproductive age has a direct implication on the bones, making them more fragile.

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